Speech of Mufti-e-’Azam Pakistan Hadhrat Maulana Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ Sahab (nawarallahu marqadahu)
The Meaning of Tauheed
Amongst the A’mal Batini [inner actions], which are necessary for the human to acquire, one is ‘Tauheed’. One meaning of Tauheed you’ve learnt already in the science of ‘Aqaid [articles of faith]. Which is that the human agrees to the Lord being one and does not associate anyone with Him. This is Tauheed ‘Ateqadi [the belief of Tauheed] which a humans Iman [faith] depends on and without it a human can not be a Muslim at all.
Tauheed ‘Amli [Practically Tauheed]
But in the science of Tasawwuf [mysticism] ‘Tauheed’ refers to ‘Tauheed ‘Amli’. Which is the following stage of the belief and it’s meaning is, that the beliefs which have been acquired from Tauheed ‘Ateqadi by the means of knowledge, should be as well practically made ones Haal [condition]. In other words, every time this reality should be kept in front of ones eyes, that whatsoever is happening in this universe is happening only by Allah, the being of the only one. All the affairs that occur in this world, they all come from Allah Ta’ala alone and without His will an atom can’t move from here to there. This is known and accepted by every Muslim till the boundaries of ‘Aqaid. But at all the times of discomfort & comfort and sorrow & enjoyment the realization of this reality doesn’t remain. That’s why when any happiness or pain is recieved by any zahir[apparent] means then a person thinks of that zahir means as everything and relates both happiness and pain to it. But the demand of ‘Tauheed ‘Amli’ from a human is that every hour he keeps the realization of this reality as if he is seeing it. This has been interpreted by some elders in the following way:
“توحید خدا واحد دیدن بودنہ واحد گفتن”
When a human at every time behind all incidents sees the only one Lord alone, then he becomes independent of peoples enmity and friendship. Because he knows that whatever comfort or pain comes to me is all from the Lord alone and that which from the zahir seems to be the cause is just a means – not more than that.
از خدا داں خلاف دشمن و دوست
کہ دل ہر دو در تصٌرف اوست
It’s narrated about Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) that when he faced something displeasing instead of showing much worry or anger he would just say:
“All that Allah willed happened and all that Allah does not will will not happen.”
And it’s true that there’s no better recipe for ease of the heart at occasions of sorrow or pain.
The Example of Tauheed
Imam Ghazzali (rahmataullah alayh) has explained this through a parable. He says, a man accused a sword to have hit him. The sword replied, “Who am I? Do I have this strength? I was just used by the hand. If you want to accuse anyone, then him.” This man then accused the hand. The hand answered, “How am I guilty? I was even strengthless and unconscious. It was the ‘intention’ which came and woke me up. So, if you want to argue, then argue with him.” Then the man accused the intention, which gave in reply, “What am I? I was actuated by the heart for this movement.” When he reached the heart, it said, “What’s the reality of me? I’m in control of someonelse’ power.”
القلوب بىن اصبعى الرحمن
In the same way at the end all movements and actions are completed by one real doer and this is Allah Tabaraka wa Ta’ala.
Now, this is this reality which’s realization is required by ‘Tauheed ‘Amli’ and when a human gradually acquires this status of Tauheed then neither the passion to adulate someone is born in his heart and he doesn’t beslobber nor does he fear anyone except Allah. And neither can the allurement of wealth and riches incite him for any work and nor fear of ones body. This is what Shaykh Sa’adi (rahimullah) calls,
موحدچہ برپائے ریزی زرش
چہ فولاد ہندی نی برسرش
امیدوہراسش نہ باشد زکس
ہمیں است بنیاد توحید وبس
Because he not only knows this reality but sees with open eyes, that if the humans of the whole world together want to benefit me, they couldn’t and if the all the creations of the world gather to harm me, they could not. So, why should I be scared of someone? Or beslobber someone in the greed for something? Consequently such a person besides Allah Ta’ala neither fears or bows in front of anyone, nor beslobbers anyone or builds his hopes on someone through whose violation he would be harmed. Well, he’s absorbed only in the connection with one Being and his slogan is:
یکے داں ، یکے خواں ، یکے بیں ، یکے جو
The Way of Attaining this Status of Tauheed
Now, the question arises how to attain this status? Matter of fact is that every Muslim has the conviction of ‘Ateqadan Tauheed, but because the humans sight when falling on the apparent ways’ perplexity remain puzzled the conviction remains obsessed by superstitions. The example of this in the words of Imam Ghazzali (rahmatullah alayh) is, that everyone is completely convinced that a humans dead corpse is unable to move and has no senses left. It can not do any action by itself. But despite this conviction someone sleeping in one bed with this dead corpse would feel a savagery. This doesn’t mean that this person doesn’t acknowledge the dead corpse to be powerless. Undoubtedly, he acknowledges that this dead corpse is powerless. But superstitions worries his mind.
In exactly the same way Muslims acknowledge the apparent ways as unable, but in the heart is not enough strength to not let superstitions dominate. If this strength is created in the heart then the status of ‘Tauheed ‘Amli’ will come automatically. Hadhrat Majzoob says,
کچھ بھی مجنوں! جو بصیرت تجھے حاصل ہو جائے
تو نے لیلی جسے سمجھا ہے وہ محمل ہو جائے
This strength of the heart is gained through the means of ‘Muraqabah’[deep contemplation]. When a human daily takes a look at the world’s affairs undividely and sees how men made plans turn into ash, then slowly slowly the clouds of superstitions will disappear from the heart and in that place ‘Aqeedah Tauheed will penetrate into and will start to become ones Haal. Yes, for Muraqabah the guidance of a Shaykh-e-Kamil is necessary, so he prevents a human from engaging in abundance or decrease.
One elegant Behaviour about Tauheed
Regarding abundance and decrease two things should be remembered. First, even though the Khaliq [creator] of all good and bad in this universe is Allah Ta’ala and comfort reaches a person from Him as well and discomfort too, but the demand of Adab [manners] is that the human relates all good to Allah Ta’ala, but does not relate the bad to Him. It’s said in the beloved Qur’an:
مَا يَفْتَحِ اللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ مِن رَّحْمَةٍ فَلَا مُمْسِكَ لَهَا وَمَا يُمْسِكْ فَلَا مُرْسِلَ لَهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ
“Whatever blessing Allah opens for the people, there is none to hold it back, and whatever He holds back, there is none to release it thereafter.” [35:2]
Here with opening Bari Ta’ala has mentioned ‘Rahmat’ [blessing], but with holding back He has not mentioned ‘Rahmat’ but instead used the words of ‘whatever’, and this ‘whatever’ has not been further described. In this we get taught, that to relate the holding back of Rahmat to Allah is against Adab and there’s this point as well, that those things that apparently seem to be against Rahmat compared to the created problems of the universe are a Rahmat.
The same way Hadhrat Ibrahim (alayhis salam) was cautious. It is in Qur’an that he would keep on relating everything good to Allah: He who guides me, Who feeds me and gives me to drink afterwards he says:
وَإِذَا مَرِضْتُ فَهُوَ يَشْفِينِ
“And when I become sick, He heals me.” [26:80]
Here healing was related to Allah Ta’ala and becoming sick was related to himself. Similarly has Hadhrat Khidhr (alayhis salam) said:
فَأَرَدْنَا أَن يُبْدِلَهُمَا رَبُّهُمَا خَيْرًا مِّنْهُ زَكَاةً وَأَقْرَبَ رُحْمًا
“We, therefore, wished that their Lord would replace him with someone better than him in piety, and more akin to affection.” [18:81]
Here the intention for something good was related to Allah. But at the story of the boat he says:
فَأَرَدتُّ أَنْ أَعِيبَهَا
“So I wanted to make it defective…” [18:79]
Because here the word of “defective” came into use it was related to himself. For this reason the Fuqaha[specialists in the field of Islamic jurisprudence] have written, that if a person just uses for Allah Ta’ala the words “Khaliq al-kalaab wa’l-khanaaseer”, then he becomes a Kafir [unbeliever].
Second thing is that even though the real doer and cause of every incident in this universe is Allah’s being alone, the Islamic Shariat [divine law] has not made the appearant means in the worldly Ahkam [rulings] totally digressive. But for them as well some rights have been set. The reason for that is that the doer in reality without a doubt is Allah alone, but whichever thing Allah Ta’ala has used as the cause has a status, too. Thus, if someone favours you then to be grateful to him is Wajib [necessary] for you. The example of this is like the ‘Ulema [scholars] have written, that the utensils for acquiring knowledge, for example pen, ink-pot and paper etc., have as well to be respected by the student.
Certainly, till which boundaries these means should be intended and when they should just be seen? This is the fine difference, which has to be intended for by those walking on the path of ‘Tauheed ‘Amli’ and practically the boundaries can be determined by the guidance of a Shaykh-e-Kamil.
[from the "Khutbaat-e-Mufti 'Azam" compiled by Janab Hafiz Akbar Shah Bukhari Sahab]